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Special thanks are due to the Secretaries of these Breed Societies for their valuable assistance in providing copies of the historical notices of the breeds in their Society publi- cations, and furnishing recent information relating to them. Useful and highly appreciated assistance has been rendered by the loan of blocks from the following list of helpers : The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland ; The Highland and Agri- cultural Society'; The Cambridge University Press ; Modern Farming ; Dumfries and Galloway Standard ; the late Henry J. Choking may be prevented by keeping down the heads of the animals while they are feeding on roots in their stalls, by letting drop on the back of their necks a long pole, about 3 in. 438 THE HORSE Both fore and hind limbs are well formed and well set on, and are furnished with chestnuts. In conjunction with this mare nomination scheme a Register of Thoroughbred stallions, passed as sound and suitable for stud purposes, was issued annually by the Society. Its members lived widely apart — in England, Wales, and Ireland, but none were resident in Scotland. "The indomitable pluck, endurance, and good temper of the Welsh pony, together with his substance and dash, will be 2 K 514 HORSES— POLO PONIES found an invaluable cross for the thoroughbred and Eastern bred ponies." A great difficulty in breeding polo ponies has been to keep the height within the limit ; and small, pure pony blood as female foundation stock becomes invaluable.But, while fully acknowledging indebtedness for willing help, I assume the entire responsibility for what has been PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION xi stated generally as well as in relation to individual breeds, as I have had to keep in view not only the interests of one special breed, but also its connection with other breeds, and the position that it occupies in the great Live Stock economy of the country. in diameter, hinged to and suspended from the rail binding the upper ends of the stakes to which the cattle are tied. The joints are of good size and the hocks somewhat straight. The numbers of stallions so registered during the period in which the Society was entrusted with the administration of the grant, were as under : — Year 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 orses l OI ii9 105 219 239 212 217 206 120 IMPROVEMENT IN BREEDING 511 On its establishment in 1900, the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland became responsible for the improvement of horse-breeding in the country ; and with the more ample funds at its disposal, it was in a position to undertake the work on a wider scale than was possible for the Royal Dublin Society with its comparatively limited resources. The limit of height of foundation mares and stallions was fixed at 14-2 hands, and no such animals could be entered without certificates signed by judges, unless they were certified leading prize-winners. With the Welsh should be mentioned the Dartmoor, Exmoor, New Forest, Church Stretton Hills, and West Highland ponies, the characteristic features of which are discussed later. contains the following defence of the inclusion of the word " Polo" in the name of the Society — Polo being only one of the many uses to which a riding pony under 14-2 hands can be put. pai ICikarg ^ortfj C^irolma ^tatc College 5F59 Mn PTM ripni ima ctatc mun/r Dcn Date Due 2&Janj2 a& J ar S J98a. D., Economic Entomologist : Autobiography and Correspondence (1904). One consequence has been the exceptional number of additions made in the Appendices to bring important subjects up to date. Sc, my former assistant and now my successor in the Chair of Agri- culture and Rural Economy in the University of Edinburgh. I specially acknowledge indebtedness to The Agricultural Gazette for putting at my disposal its unique series of photo- graphs of Agricultural Live Stock. In a typical Leith dairy of 100 cows, yielding an average of 3J gallons of milk each daily during summer, and 3 gallons in winter, the daily food of an average cow (which weighed 1 120 lb., cost ;^22, and six weeks after calving yielded 43 lb. If an animal is permitted to elevate its head, a piece of the unchewed root is liable to slip over 6FEET LONG. A " probang " is not a safe means of relief unless in skilled hands, the gullet being so easily ruptured when force is applied. A smaller number have instead a narrower tan-coloured ring, which is correlated with a darker shade in the general colour of the hairy coat. ^3200 each year to the advancement of horse-breeding. Woosnam, Cefnllysgwynne, Builth ; Frederick Wrench ( Vi'ce- Presidenf), Irish Land Commission, Dublin. Although many others are admitted to the Register, " the weight-carrying blood polo pony is the type which the Society considers is the one to be aimed at." Ponies are more and more wanted as hacks, apart from the insatiable demand for high-class polo types.WORKS BY PROFESSOR WALLACE Indian Agriculture (1889). The modern history of many of the breeds of British Live Stock is evolving at a rapid rate, and the growing demand for good cattle has greatly extended and stimulated the general interest. I have endeavoured in the text or by footnotes to indicate my indebtedness to previous writers, but it is necessary to make mention of the following works which have been of more than usual value, and to which the reader may be referred for information of a more detailed character than is possible to give in a general work : — Youatt's various works on Live Stock ; 'Low's Domesticated Animals of the British Isles (1845); J- ^- Thomson's Heredity ; Morgan's The Physical Basis of Heredity ; East and ] ones' s In-breeding and Out-breeding; Armsby's The Nutrition of Farm Animals ; Henry and Morrison's Feeds and Feeding ; Craig's fudging Live Stock ; Plumb's Types and Breeds of Farm Animals ; Warfield's Cattle Breeding ; Sanders's Shorthorn Cattle; Sinclair's History of Shorthorn Cattle; Mac Donald and Sinclair's History of Aberdeen-Angus Cattle, and History of Hereford Cattle ; Eckles's Dairy Cattle and Milk Production ; Hayes's Points of the Horse; Ridgway's Origin and Inflicence of the Thoroughbred Horse ; VVortley Axe's The Horse : Its Treatment in Health and Disease. Professor Watson has the entire credit of recasting and amplifying Chapters I., III., IV., XIV., XXI., and XXXII., dealing respectively with " The Principles of Breeding," " Shorthorn Cattle," " House - feeding of Cattle," " The Clydesdale Horse," and " Feeding of Sheep." He has also xii PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION contributed a new Chapter (XXXVI.) on "Wool," which is an important addition to the subject matter. Secretary of the British Goat Society, and a valuable Chapter (XXVI.), especially for students, on "Shoeing: The Foot, its Injuries and Diseases," by W. The brand, " Agricultural Gazette Photograph" reproduced in each case, is a guarantee that the animal appears as it was taken. The most simple and effective practice is to keep the mouth open by introducing a wooden gag like a large bit, to prevent the collection of gases in the stomach, and to avoid choking by saliva, which then runs from the mouth in place of into the windpipe ; a little oil and sulphuric-ether, sufficient to lubricate the part, may also be given with advantage. The body is thick-set, and the back straight and strongly coupled, with deep, rounded ribs and a good heart-girth. The hind-quarters are extremely short, very broad behind, flat on the plate, drooping at the croup, and generally formed like those of the common donkey. So far as it applied to horses, the grant in question was expended by the Society in the form of premiums to stallions which were distributed throughout the country in accordance with local requirements. The Council and certain others were elected to act as judges of the eligibility of ponies for entry. Built on proper lines, a riding pony should trot, canter, or gallop, but the high-trotting harness action is an objection, as it implies discomfort to the rider and an unnecessary test of endurance in the animal's fore feet. In addition to the arguments which have been advanced against this view, it may be said that, had the wild cattle originated through animals escaping from domestication, they would certainly not all have become white in so many centres at such great distances apart; some of the numerous varieties of coloured cattle would surely have become established somewhere. The third period from Mid - February till 8th May was supplied with mangels and pea and oat hay. Large Whitk Ulster Sow, " Garvallagh Princess IL" (2028). In the fossil remains of Pleistocene and recent times, as well as in the horse of the present day, the lateral toes are still further reduced, being represented by splint bones, which are not apparent external to the skin, or only so in the case of monstrosities which occur from time to time. The cross of the heavy cart horse with the Irish mare was found unsuitable, and the effort to effect improvement in this way was eventually abandoned. He states that the sole aboriginal race of domesticated British cattle was the small, slender, dark-coloured, short-horned animal, " Longifrojis" which " came from Central Asia by gradual migrations as a domesticated race." And he declares that the large long-horned race was introduced at the time of the English invasion, and that its early wild prototype had become extinct here before the termination of the Bronze Age ; consequently, the ancestors of the wild white cattle must have broken away from civilisation. Rye was remarkable in producing milk from which exceptionally fine, firm butter was made, and crushed oats gave better results than purchased meal. Those of a later date have the two lateral toes functionally useless, and carried up from the ground with the middle toe well developed. HISTORY 509 were imported from England to meet this demand, but these horses failed to serve the purpose for which they were intended.*Algumas doações aparecem com o CNPJ -Repasse- pois foi uma doação realizada a um candidato e este repassou a doação para o candidato em questão.Sendo assim, não necessariamente o doador original sabe que a sua doação foi repassada a outro candidato.

That many coloured cattle escaped in an unfenced country and joined the wild herds in the woods before they were enclosed in parks is certain, but, weakened for "rustling" by domestication, no more of them would survive than would be easily absorbed by a great pre- ponderating volume of wild blood. Tit E CHILLINGHAM BULL PUT TO Ca DZOW Pa RK Ca TTLE (p. By this means 13 cows were fed in 191 8 on 15 acres of arable land, supple- mented by an average amount of 4 lb. Ridgway continues: — "It is generally admitted that the ancestors of the living Equidc B passed from America into the Old World, for before the Ice Age it was perfectly possible for American horses to cross into Asia by land bridges in the vicinity of Behring Strait; thence they extended into Europe, and finally reached Africa either from Asia or by the land bridges which then linked Europe to North Africa." " It is believed that in the Pleistocene period Europe was inhabited by several species of horse, as Africa now possesses several species of zebra." It is of special interest to us in this country that "the Pleistocene beds of Essex yield bones and teeth of a large-headed, heavy-built horse, which probably sometimes measured over fourteen hands high. The people were therefore compelled to rely on the selection of the heavier of their native horses for the production of animals of a t\pe suited for farm work. No less than five original enclosed herds had, at least during some time, no horns— those at Ardrossan and Cadzovv in Scotland ; Somerford Park, Cheshire ; Wollaton Park, Nottingham, believed to have come from Whalley in Lancashire ; and Gisbounie in Yorkshire. The co-operative creamery system proved to be a great success in the south and west of Ireland, and at the same time an immense advantage to small holders who, acting individually, are powerless to secure a market connection. The " soiling " farm system, which will maintain herds of dairy cows entirely on arable land for the year round, has a promising future in this country, in spite of the widespread belief of its impracticability among dairy farmers whose experience has been one-sided. Ij Aroe Black Sow, " Easton Bessie I." Agod 2 years 1 month. In some of the bone deposits in France as many as 20,ogo to 40,000 skeletons are represented in a single place. Then he got on the back of his blue, sweeping, very-knowing, lively, expert steed so that they went in no other fashion than as it were a lon'^ going before the wind, or a seamew off a bald mountain head, or a wheel down a great incline, or a sound going through the valleys, or Ceadach, the son of the King of Sorcha, going to dispute with the king-son Caoilte mac Ronain in the desert places of Airreacht O'Conor, on the near confines of Erin and Alba ; so that such was the career of travel and constant-going which the hero made at that time, that he would rout badger out of woods, geilts of glens, wolves under heights, and put foxes a-wandering, ever, until he came to the brink of Loch Ti&xg." —The Lad of the Ferule, with translation, notes, and glossary by Douglas Hyde (London : Irish Text Society, 1899), PP- 31-32- About the beginning of the eighteenth century a number of stallions of Eastern blood were introduced from England and these, mated with native mares, produced what is considered to be the parent stock of the present-day Thoroughbred in Ireland, the breeding of which may be said to date from this period. The majority had horns which varied extremely in length, in form and in set, at least among those that are left or of which there are records. Width below liorns, 12"; width of i h Migtli of liorn cores, 27" ; girth close to skull, 13j". Sir Richard Barter, St Ann's Hill, Cork, a pioneer in this system of dairying, — " Found from carefully kept records that cows calving in December and January give the largest return of milk — for say ten months in milk — as there comes on a second flush of milk when cows get the grass at the end of April and May, and they yield during the summer nearly as well as if they calved in March." Associated with the increased supply of winter produce, co-operation for manufacturing and marketing purposes is 1 In i8gi, the amount of foreign dairy-produce imported was valued at over ^14,000,000. THE "SOILING" SYSTEM 329 in the great majority of small holdings an absolute necessity. Before the horse was captured and domesticated, he was evidently used as a source of food, as in many Palaeolithic stations the bones of the horse, as well as those of the reindeer, have been found in quantity. Then there was found for him a smooth, high- spirited, very-fast, clear-leaping steed, with four shoes of fine-white silver beneath him and a golden-bitted bridle, which [steed] had in itself twelve accomplishments of excellence : first, three excellences of a woman — a narrow waist, a full hip, and a proud spirit ; three excellences from a bull — a stout eye, a thick neck, and a broad face ; three excellences from a fox — a bounding gait, a pointed ear, and a bushy tail ; three excellences from a hare — a high leap, a rapid turning, and a run uphill. FARM LIVE STOCK OF GREAT BRITAIN a2 First Edition ..... She has also the consolation of knowing that, in spite of the modern philosopher's ingratitude to, and want of appreciation of, X PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION Agriculture (in which he contrasts unfavourably with his prototype of Egypt, Carthage, or Rome), yet not a day passes without repeated acknowledgment in deed, if not in word, of his absolute dependence upon her for his very existence ; an undeniable proof that in this respect, in spite of all his assumed airs of superiority, the pedantic philosopher is in no superior position to the most humble toiler in the farmyard or in the field. Wells Bladen (President) to the North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club, 20th Nov. This system is not compatible with calving-down the cows a second year. At some signal, they either close into a dense mass and trample their enemy to death ; or, placing the mares and foals in the centre, they form into a ring and welcome him with their heels. Pietrement maintains that the home of "the wild horse of the Old World was confined to Northern Europe and to those regions of upper Asia which lie north of the Caucasus and of the mountain range joining the Caspian Sea with the Himalayas." The plain-dwelling Asiatic horse he divided into two distinct breeds, the Mongolian, with convex forehead and low-set tail, to the east, and the Aryan " with the straight or upturned profile and tail set on high," to the west of the Altai Mountains. 3 See Waltace's Monthly, May 1892, Rialto Buildings, Chicago, to which the Author is indebted. In two or three cases, stripes on the shoulders, shorter than those of a donkey, descend from the withers but incline more forward at the points. The services of the sires employed under this scheme have been discontinued for a number of years, and at present there is hardly a trace of their influence left in the districts in which they were used. Let your pony show as much substance as a weight-carrying hunter, the quality of a racehorse, and measure from 14 to 14 hands 2 in." To stand with the hind legs well under the body like a zebra, enables a polo pony to turn more cleverly in the game than when the legs are placed perpendicularly, as they ought to be in the case of other horses. A, PROFESSOR (emeritus) OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL ECONOMV IN THE UNIVERSITY OP EDINBURGH ASSISTED BY HIS SUCCESSOR J. Agriculture can afford to smile at such pedantry, and excuse it on the plea of ignorance. The suggestion Professor Hughes made in The Times of ' Some light may be thrown on this debatable question by a find at Stone of the bones and skulls of the Urus^ described by W. When good non-pedigree milking Shorthorn cows are kept at all seasons in the house, and fed to the highest degree possible, the yield per cow can be made double that obtained under the natural system — the produce can be raised from 550 to 1 100 gallons. The lion, the tiger, and the leopard (local names for inferior beasts of prey) ^ are their principal enemies. HISTORY AND CLASSIFICATION 435 Professor Angelo Heilprin^ says : " It would appear not exactly improbable, from certain references contained in old narratives, that at least in South America the animal still lingered on even after the advent of the Europeans." John Lawrence also remarks": "The non-existence of the horse in America previous to its discovery by Europeans, has, however, been disputed, but I recollect not by whom or upon what grounds." In W. Flower's work on the Horse, an independent reference is made to Cabot's supposed discovery, which is regarded as possible in the light of the fact that forms indistinguishable from Eqwis caballus, so far as their osteological structure is concerned, " existed in America before its introduction by the Spaniards." Whether Flower's information is reliable or not " it is certain," says Professor Cope, " that man was con- temporary with species of Equus on the North American Continent."^ The alleged total extinction of all equine species in America is by Ridgway attributed not to the great carnivora, but to the "insidious inroads of far meaner foes, for we must not forget that there are no feral horses in Paraguay, because a Hippoboscus or an (Estrus attacks the umbilical region of young foals, and produces ulcers, which invariably cause death unless human aid is interposed." There are two monumental -works on equine history worthy of special notice, one French, and the other English — The Prehistoric and Historic Horse, by Pietrement, 1883, and, The Origin and Influence of the Thoroughbred Horse, by Professor Ridgway of Cambridge, the distinguished archae- ologist, 1905. The beard or fringe under the jaw is coloured like the upper part of the body, but on the belly, thence half- way up the sides, and on the buttocks the hair shades off into a stained white. Some thirty years ago an effort to improve these Connemara horses was made by the Irish Congested Districts Board, which for the purpose introduced sires of a number of breeds, including the Hackney, the Welsh cob, and the Norwegian pony, but for various reasons the experiment was not a success. These points may offend the eye as far as symmetry is con- cerned, but an animal thus made, though he may lose speed from the conformation, can invariably turn quickly.

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Boyd Dawkins^ takes another view, against which there is a vast amoimt of negative evidence. As these first crops were gradually removed to supply a regular succession of food, the whole of the land was planted with cabbages for a second crop, which lasted from ist October till the middle of February and was fed with pea and oat hay. More recent species exhibit three toes on both fore and hind limbs, with an increase of size in the central, as compared with the lateral toes, but still all formed for action in walking. Draft horses Norwegian, Lomj English, Loon = a Diver i Colymbus).

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